The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat, when the country was divided into North and South halves. Communist North Vietnam eventually conquered the anti-communist South in 1975 but then stagnated economically until 1986 before introducing a more market-based economy.
Tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
Kinh (Viet) 85.3%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.9%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.4%, Mong 1.4%, Nung 1.1%, other 5.5% (2019 est.)
Standing with your hands on your hips or crossing your arms on your chest are seen as impolite body language.
Pho — rice noodles in beef or chicken broth seasoned with cumin, coriander powder, black cardamom, roasted onion powder, roasted ginger powder, fennel, and cloves; sometimes beef slices and/or vegetable sprouts are added
Lower middle-income socialist East Asian economy; rapid economic growth since Đổi Mới reforms; strong investment and productivity growth; tourism and manufacturing hub; TPP signatory; declining poverty aside from ethnic minorities